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X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a method used to measure crystalline substances (or phases) within a solid material.  XRD produces a diffraction pattern that is distinctive for each material and is used like a fingerprint and stored in a large database to used identify components in a sample.  XRD is an ideal non-destructive technique used to

  • Identify crystalline phases and orientation
  • Determine structural properties such as, crystallite size, strain, lattice parameters, phase composition, and preferred orientation
  • Determine atomic arrangement
  • Measure phase composition and thickness of thin films


Sample size and preparation

Powder X-ray diffractometers are highly versatile instruments that can measure more than just powder but also bulk metals, fabricated parts, coatings, polymers, etc. (Check out our blog for an example of customized sample holders).  For powder XRD it is important for a sample to have a smooth surface, therefore we typically grind powder samples down to a small particle size using a micronizing mill.  Ideal sample size for powders is 1+ grams and solid objects >1cm2 surface area, but we can also work with smaller quantities if necessary.


Texray Instruments

Texray has a wide range of hardware, such as multi-position sample changer, grazing incidence attachment, Göbel mirror, omega stage, xyz-stage, non-ambient temperature stages, and multiple X-ray tube sources, to improve the speed of data collection and offer a variety of applications.

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XRD Applications

  • Phase Identification
  • Phase Quantification (Rietveld Refinement)
  • Crystallite Size & Strain
  • Percent Crystallinity
  • Preferred Orientation (Texture Analysis)
  • Thin Film (Grazing Incidence Diffraction)
  • Respirable Crystalline Silica
  • Corrosion Idenification
  • Residual Stress
  • Retained Austenite